1.1.1 Binary
1.1.1 Binary systems
Learning Outcome

The word binary is derived from the Latin word bini (two by two)
This system uses only two symbols (0 1), usually referred as binary digit or binary digits.
The numbers in the binary system are represented to the base 2 and the positional multipliers are the powers of 2.
The leftmost bit in the binary number is called the Most Significant Bit (MSB) and it has the largest positional weight.
The rightmost bit is the Least Significant Bit (LSB) and has the smallest positional weight.
Consider a binary no 101001 the left extreme 1 isMSB and the right extreme 1 is LSB.
Example The binary sequence (1101)2 has the decimal equivalent:
(1101)2 = 1 u 23 + 1 u 22 + 0 u 21 + 1 u 20 = 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = (13)10
I Decimal to Binary Conversion
To convert Decimal to Binary “Repeated Division by 2” method can be used. Any Decimal number divided by 2 will leave a remainder of 0 or 1. Repeated division by 2 will leave a sequence of 0s and 1s that become the binary equivalent of the decimal number.
Example
Convert (65)10 into its equivalent binary number
II Binary to Decimal Conversion
To convert Binary to Decimal we can use the positional notation method.
Step 1: Write down the Binary digits and list the powers of 2 from right to left(Positional Notation)
Step 2: For each positional notation written for the digit, now write the equivalent weight.
Step 3: Multiply each digit with its corresponding weight
Step 4: Add all the values.
For example
III Binary to Octal Conversion
Step 1: Group the given binary number into 3 bits from right to left.
Step 2: You can add preceding 0 to make a group of 3 bits if the leftmost group has less than 3 bits.
Step 3: Convert equivalent octal value using “2’s power positional weight method”
IV Practice Problems
Question No 1:

Question No 2:
Convert the following Decimal numbers to its equivalent Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal.

Question No :
Question No 1:
Convert the given Binary number into its equivalent Decimal, Octal, and Hexadecimal number.
